Oil & Gas

Table 1: Metals and Contaminants

METAL ENGINES TRANSMISSIONS GEAR SYSTEMS
Aluminum alloying element or cast metal Aluminum oxides present in the environment, typically associated with silicon (dirt) contamination.
Pistons; bearings; ushings; blocks, main and accessory cases and housings; some oil-cooler tubing; some retainers; seals; baffles. Some cases; impellers; bushings and retainers. Bearings; bushings, retainers, and thrust washers; oil-cooler tubing.
Copper alloying element Bearings; wrist pin and valve train bushings; Some main and accessory bearing retainers; other bushings and thrust washers; oil-cooler tubing. Also may be present as an oil additive or a crossover contaminant from a leaking transmission seal; some oil-control valves. Discs; bearings; bushings and thrust washers; retainers and separators; oil-cooler tubing.
Iron alloying element or cast metal Gears and shafts; block; cylinder liners; valve train; connecting rods, rings and oil pump; some bearings; pumps; housings; some pistons; some accessory systems. Gears and shafts; bearings; brakes and disks; pumps and shift spools; PTO; housing. Shafts and gears; bearings; housing.
Chromium alloying element or plating Liners and rings; shafts; valve train; bearings; shafts and gears; seals. - Bearings; shafts; seals.
Lead & Tin alloy or flashing Bearings; some pistons, bushings and thrust washers.
  • Lead may still be found (rarely) in industrial paints and primers.
  • Tin may be present as an oil additive, usually in conjunction with lubricants containing molybdenum compounds.
Nickel alloying element or plating Gears and shafts; valve train; bearings. - Gears and shafts; bearings

 

METAL HYDRAULIC COMPRESSORS
Aluminum alloying element or cast metal Aluminum oxides present in the environment, typically associated with silicon (dirt) contamination.
Some pump housings. Case; impellers, some pistons and rossheads; retainers.
Copper alloying element Bearings and bushings; swash plate cups; valves; some pistons; some pump cylinders; oilcooler tubing. Bearings; bushings, thrust washers and retainers; oil-cooler tubing.
Iron alloying element or cast metal Rotors, vanes, pistons, and rods; housing and bores; gears and shafts; valves. Gears and shafts; case; valves; cylinder liners; crossheads; rings and screws or turbines; bearings; some oil-cooler tubing.
Chromium alloying element or plating Rods; valves. Liners and rings; shafts; valve train.
Lead & Tin alloy or flashing Pump thrust plate; bushings. -
  • Lead may still be found (rarely) in industrial paints and primers.
  • Tin may be present as an oil additive, usually in conjunction with lubricants containing molybdenum compounds.
Nickel alloying element or plating Gears and shafts; bearings Bearings; bushings.

 

METAL ENGINES, TRANSMISSIONS, GEAR SYSTEMS, HYDRAULIC, COMPRESSOR
Antimony alloying element Certain types of journal-bearing overlays.
Beryllium Thrust washers of aircraft engines. Component of ceramic material.
Lithium The sign of grease contamination.
Magnesium alloying element Cases and housings.
Molybdenum alloy or flashing Typically found only in certain aerospace and heavy-duty commercial or industrial steels. May also be present in fuels as heavy crude residual material.
Silicon Silicon is typically associated with dirt contamination. This contamination can result from any condition that allows dirt to enter a component oil system. Other sources of silicon include seals, oil and coolant additives and greases.
Silver plating; tracer Some bearings and bushings; oil cooler solder; seals. Silver is also occasionally used as a physical “tracer” to indicate wear has progressed to a certain point. In this application, silver is either plated directly onto a part surface or incorporated into a layer under the surface. The wear condition of the part can then be related to the amount of the tracer deposited in the oil. This usage is most often found in aerospace applications.
Titanium alloying element Some shafts, bearings, and gears. Typically found only in certain aerospace and heavy-duty commercial or industrial steels.
Vanadium alloying element Typically found only in certain aerospace and heavy-duty commercial or industrial steels. May also be present in fuels as heavy crude residual material.
Zinc alloying element Brass fittings (with copper); galvanized surfaces.

 

Table 2: Additive Metals

METAL USE
Barium Corrosion and rust inhibitors; detergent; anti-smoke additive in fuels.
Boron Detergent, dispersant; anti-oxidant in oils and coolants.
Calcium Detergent, dispersant, alkalinity increaser.
Magnesium Detergent, dispersant, alkalinity increaser.
Molybdenum Extreme pressure additive or solid lubricant in specialty oils and greases; corrosion inhibitor in some conventional coolants or supplemental additives.
Phosphorus Anti-wear; combustion chamber deposit reducer; corrosion inhibitor in coolants.
Potassium Corrosion inhibitor; trace element in fuels; also found as a mineral salt in sea water (marine cooling systems).
Sodium Corrosion inhibitor in oils and coolants.
Zinc Anti-wear, anti-oxidant, corrosion inhibitor.


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